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Discussion Starter #2
Goals

My goal for the engine build is to have a competitive, period correct FIA appendix K 1300 engine to be able to participate in historic events. It should also be possible to run it without problems on regular roads. I accept that I might need to change cam phasing and also distributor (original breaker version for FIA racing and electronic for daily driving) when shifting between road driving and competition. The engine must be possible to run on 98 RON pump fuel available in Europe. I don’t believe I can revolutionize anything, but I hope to learn a thing or two and have fun while building a decent 1300 engine.

DM
 

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Discussion Starter #3
How much power can be expected?

Back in the late 50’s and early 60’s Conrero and Facetti prepared Giulietta engines for competition. Commonly quoted power figures is 125-130 bhp. To reach these power figures Conrero and Facetti, among other things, modified the camshafts and also ported the cylinder head.

For substantial power increase it necessary to increase the flow through the ports. Jim Kartamalakis mentions in his Alfa V6 tuning book that for an “overall well-tuned engine”, power per cylinder corresponds to intake flow at peak valve lift according to:

Power (hp) = 0.43 x flow ([email protected]”H2O)

The engine speed for the power can be estimated, according to JK by:

Rpm = (36000/cylinder cc) x flow ([email protected]”H2O)

If we calculate backwards, we get that for 130 hp we need 75.6 cfm and that with the original size of the cylinders, 322 cc, the power will be given at 8452 rpm (with 75.6 cfm). If we can achieve even higher flow, we can get even higher power at further increased engine speed. Alternatively, if one can beat what is defined as a well-tuned engine in the equations above (factors 0.43 and 36000), for instance 130 hp can be reached at lower rpm than 8500.

8500 rpm is obviously a high engine speed for a car engine from the 1950:s and even though some people refer to claims of how the Alfa 1300 tolerate 10000 rpm, I am concerned, and plan to use the best parts and known tricks to keep the engine tolerate 8500 rpm on occasion and still have a long life in more moderate use. Another concern is if the ignition system is able to provide a good enough spark at such high engine speeds. I am also concerned that the clutch could become a problem. Advice are welcome!

DM
 

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Discussion Starter #7
What does the FIA appendix K say

The Giulietta Sprint Veloce was homologated into GTS4 (post 1946 Competition Grand Touring Cars) and period E2 (1955-1961). Basically the engine must stick to original components and dimensions with some exceptions. You find the regulations here:

https://historicdb.fia.com/sites/default/files/regulations/1520957151/2018_appendix_k_yearbook_web_full_20180309.pdf

Below you find some of the relevant sections:

2.3.7 Post 1946 Competition Grand Touring Cars (GTS)
2.3.7.1 Generally Competition GT cars are small series, usually, two seat production cars which may be open or closed which cannot be classified as Touring Cars which are modified beyond normal series production specification for Competition purpose.
2.3.7.2 Cars which are not derived from a car which pre dates homologation may include modifications carried out in the period within the limits of the international rules for Grand Touring cars in force at the time. The fundamental and general designs of the model - chassis, body and of the engine must remain the same as those of the corresponding series production model.
3.3.7 For homologated cars, original FIA homologation papers, with such extensions and variations, as were homologated in the period concerned are valid. In addition, the rules of Appendix J of the period are valid if they cover a specification used in period as written in Article 3.3.8 for non-homologated cars.
3.3.8 For non-homologated cars, the following evidence (given in order of priority) may be admitted to prove period specification:
(a) Manufacturer’s specifications as evidenced by any of the following: sales brochures, manufacturer’s handbook, manufacturer’s workshop manual, manufacturer’s spare parts list, road test magazines, all of which must have been published in period.
(b) Evidence that a manufacturer’s specification was varied for a Competitor in an International Competition. Any manufacturer’s document, drawing, sketch or any specification produced in period, or any magazine article produced in period (specifications in magazines and periodicals of the period must come from at least two sources).
(c) Reports from recognised experts who inspected the car.
(d) Of lesser value, but to which consideration will be given in any specific query, will be books and magazine articles written out of period by reputable authors. Recent letters written by manufacturers, mechanics, engineers, designers, Drivers and team members of the period may be considered for a specific car.
(e) All evidence referred to in the above must refer to the model in question.

6. TECHNICAL REGULATIONS FOR NON HOMOLOGATED CARS
6.4.7 Crankshafts, connecting rods, pistons and bearings may be of larger dimensions than the period specification, within the limits of the standard crankcase. They must be made from the same material type. The method of construction is free.
7. TECHNICAL REGULATION FOR PRODUCTION ROAD CARS
From page 85: APPENDIX IX - Modifications authorised for cars of Period E, F and G1 for Competition Touring Cars and Competition Grand Touring Cars. In addition to the modifications and/or requirements of Appendix VIII, the following additional modifications are authorised for Competition Touring Cars and Competition Grand Touring Cars of Periods E, F and G1. NO OTHER MODIFICATIONS ARE PERMITTED
5.1 In principle we can take up the engine from 1290 to 1300. But the additional cost is not worth it in my mind.
5.2 Cylinder head and block
The compression ratio may be modified by machining the face of the block or cylinder head and/or by omitting the gasket or using a gasket of different thickness.
5.3 Pistons, camshafts and valve springs
They may be altered, or alternative pistons, camshafts and valve springs of different specification or manufacture may be used, provided that the number employed does not exceed that of the homologated engine.
5.4 Finishing
Machining, polishing and balancing of the engine parts are authorised, on condition that:
5.4.1 these operations are carried out with no addition of material.
5.4.2 it is always possible to establish unquestionably the origin of these parts as being series-produced, authorised by these regulations, and/or homologated.
5.4.3 the dimensions and weights given on the car’s homologation form are respected, taking into account the tolerances specified on this form or in period Appendix J. If these tolerances are not specified on the form, a tolerance of ± 5% may be taken into account only for weights; for dimensions, refer to Article 3.8 of Appendix K.
3.8 Tolerances
3.8.1 Unless otherwise specified on the homologation form and in the J for the period applicable to the car, the following tolerances on measurements of components are to be applied:
3.8.2 All machining, excepting bore and stroke: ± 0.2%;
3.8.3 Unfinished casting: ± 0.5%;
7. Exhaust systems
7.1 The exhaust manifold must remain identical to the original but the silencer and exhaust pipe are free.
7.2 The resultant noise level must remain within the legal limits of the countries where the Competition is held.
7.3 The exits of the exhaust pipes shall be placed between 45cm and 10cm from the ground. They must be situated within the perimeter of the car and less than 10cm from this perimeter, and aft of the vertical plane passing through the centre of the wheelbase; the exits may be outside the perimeter only if a period specification for the model
9.2 Air filters and their housings may be replaced with inlet trumpets to period specifications.

APPENDIX VIII does not add anything of interest, but is of course more restrictive.

1.7 Plugs, ignition coil, condenser and distributor: Makes are free; The number of plugs per cylinder, the ignition coil, condenser, distributor and spark plug types must conform to the manufacturer’s specification for the model concerned.
1.8 The addition of an electronic ignition system is not permitted, nor is that of an electronic rev. limiter.
1.9 Battery and generator: The type and make are free, but a dynamo may not be changed for an alternator. The generator must generate an electric output and be on load when the engine is running.
5.5 Balancing
Is authorised but the lightening of each part must be less than 5%
5.8 Crankshaft
May be replaced by a component manufactured from a ferrous material, provided that it is identical in design and in all of its dimensions to the original component. The original main bearing caps, or reproduction caps manufactured to the same pattern and from the same material as the originals, must be retained.

Summing it up as far as I understand:
For the 1300 GSV we are in principle allowed to replace crank, connecting rods, pistons, camshafts and valve springs (of different specification or manufacture) due to the fairly liberal GTS rules. We are also allowed to machine the head according to the relevant appendix J of the time. We must keep the standard valve dimensions as listed in the homologation. We cannot add material while machining, polishing and balancing the engine parts. We must keep the standard breaker point ignition system as well as the original type exhaust manifold. But we are allowed to replace the airbox with airhorns. We are also allowed to increase the cylinder volume from 1290 to 1300 but the additional cost for the very little extra power is not worth it in my mind.
 

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Discussion Starter #8
Basic plan for my 1300 engine

- Bearings, timing chains, cam followers, valves, valve springs and other wear parts will be replaced with high quality items.
- Standard 1300 crank – but carefully selected, cleaned, balanced and hardened (to stand 8500 rpm)
- Block – carefully checked and drilled for 2 and 4 main bearing oiling. (to stand 8500 rpm)
- Carillo FIA legal connecting rods to stand 8500 rpm (the engine is after all 60 years old…)
- Spruell designed JE pistons – very happy with the pistons I got for other engines from Spruell.
- Head work based on standard valves but with some porting
- Camshafts – TBD based on simulations once the flow for the head is optimized and known.
- The ignition system might need some careful considerations.

I have four 1300 engines that I could select parts from. One 00106, 101-series veloce engine that I plan to restore to original condition one day; a 00102, 101-series “normale” engine; a 00111, 101 series; and a 530, 105-series 1300 engine.

Btw, I am lacking the correct Weber 40 DCOE 2 pair – if you have a set for sale, please contact me.
 

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Discussion Starter #12
Block selection and crank testing

The 101 normale, 101 veloce and 105 blocks and cranks are very similar with the exception of the dimensions of the main bearing caps. Apparently, the alfa engineers beefed up the bearing caps for the veloce. The veloce and the 105 bearing caps have similar dimensions but are not identical. Bearing size is always the same, though.

The picture shows from left the bearing caps for 105, 101 Veloce and 101 Normale.

The crank of my 105 engine is in perfect condition, never grinded, meeting factory specifications (The 101 normale crank would require a grind to the second under-dimension). Crack testing of the 105 revealed no problems. The crack testing was performed by using a red penetrant dye that is applied to and then carefully washed of the crank. After spraying the crank with a white developer, no red hairlines were visible on the white, indicating no cracks.

Considering the excellent condition of the 105 crank, and the veloce similar bearing caps the, 105 block was selected. It is not a 101 but match all relevant dimensions of the 101 veloce.
 

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Discussion Starter #13
More crank work

Knowing that the crank is ok, I spent some time grinding it to remove surface imperfections that can act as stress risers, but also to make the crank more “slippery” to reduce oil clinging on to it at high engine revs. This included rounding the leading and trailing ends of the counterweights. According to engine builder and author Graham Bell, oil clinging on to the crank can cost a couple of percent in dynamic power and also heats the oil unnecessary. All bearing surfaces where carefully protected while grinding.

I threaded the crank oilway ends (read Jim Kartamalakis book), which is easy with this non-hardened crank, and then rechecked all dimensions again on a simple home constructed bench (two small roller bearings under each of the two main bearings furthest from each other). I uploaded a template one can use to note crank dimensions.
 

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Really beautiful work, Don, and inspiring to everyone who loves Alfas. What tools did you use to get the finish on the crankshaft webs?
 

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Discussion Starter #18
Really beautiful work, Don, and inspiring to everyone who loves Alfas. What tools did you use to get the finish on the crankshaft webs?
Thanks!

I mainly used a hand angle grinder with flap-discs of various grit. To reach deeper, where needed, I used a larger sander with regular sandpaper. The drilling machine with cloth/non-woven combo interleaf flap wheels are great to achieve the final surface. A certain amount of patience is needed too...
 

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Discussion Starter #19
Drilling for direct oiling of 2 and 4 main bearing

At high engine speeds the oil flow is fighting the centrifugal (centripetal) force to reach bearing 2 and 4 from the flow within the crank and crank throws. To avoid this problem, it is common to drill the block for direct oil feed of main bearings 2 and 4.

I drilled through the aluminum plugs for the 1,3,5 mains oil passages and also the main oil gallery aluminum plugs (front and rear of the block) and replaced with m8 and m12 screws, so that it is easy to clean the passages. I then drilled the block from the exhaust side (and from the bearings) to create the oiling canals (7mm) for main bearings 2 and 4. These were also tapped for m8 set screws. The building laser is perfect to align everything and keep the drilling where it should (The pictures says it all?).
 

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