All about Fiat
The new Fiat Panda will have a role in the forthcoming James Bond film "Casino Royale", according to the latest reports from the International Herald Tribune.
Although it is unlikely James Bond will be behind the wheel (MI6 confirmed back in February 2004 that the Aston Martin V8 Vantage will be 007's new car), the Panda could feature as transportation for another character.
The news goes against expectations that Ford would be supplying all the vehicles for the 21st official film, following the three-picture contract that began with "Die Another Day" in 2002. Ford Motors paid $35 million to feature three of its cars: Bond drove an Aston Martin Vanquish, Jinx drove a Ford Thunderbird, and Zao drove a Jaguar XKR.
Above: The new Fiat Panda
"Casino Royale", the 21st James Bond film, will be directed by Martin Campbell and shooting is scheduled to commence on January 17th 2006 in Prague and South Africa. No casting decisions have been made officially. The release is planned fro October 19th 2006. Stay tuned to MI6 for the latest and most accurate coverage of Casino Royale
Michael Schumacher and Felipe Massa
The first MPV ever.... 1956!
Fiat 600 Multipla (1956-1965)
In the years that followed World War II, it became obvious to Fiat management that the future lay in a small car, cheap to manufacture and cheap to buy. Chief technical designer Dante Giacosa set about finding a replacement for the 500 Topolino: Project "100".
Much development and testing resulted in a shape enclosing four people with a minimum of sheet metal, powered by a simple, reliable four-cylinder engine mounted at the rear for cost reasons. The resulting Fiat 600 was one of the great success stories of the twentieth century, with some 2.7 million cars produced.
The mixed-use station wagon, called 600 Multipla (All Service), was introduced a year later, in 1956. The idea was to multiply the serviceability of the 600 for both family motoring and business use.
The multi-place seating was very flexible through a combination of folding seats.
Three versions were available:
* The 4/5 seater had bench seats front and rear that folded to make a bed. :shock:
* The 6-seater had a front bench and four individual seats that folded completely flat into the floor to make a roomy load platform.
* The Taxi version had a single seat and luggage platform in front, separate folding seats in the middle, and a bench seat in back, together with a division.
Differences from the sedan included, besides the bodywork, an auxiliary radiator up front, wishbone front suspension, different gear ratios, worm and roller steering, slightly larger fuel tank, and interior lamps.
The Multipla name is today revived for another unusual ground-breaking vehicle. 8)
Model: 600 DM Motor: Fiat, 4-stroke Body: Steel
Years Built: 1956-1969 No. Cylinders: 4 Chassis: None
No. Produced: 129,994 Displacement: 767cc Susp Front: Coil
No. Surviving: Horsepower: 32 Susp Rear: Coil
Length: 3432 mm Gearbox: 4 + rev Strg: Worm&Roller
Width: 1450 mm Starter: Electric Brakes: Hydraulic
Weight: 580 kg Electrics: 12v 4 Wheels: 5.20 x 12"
Interior: 4 seats Ignition: Coil Top Speed: 96 kph
Nowadays Multipla was an exhibit in Museum of Modern Art of New York-"Different Roads - Automobiles for the Next Century-1999
Fiat presents the new Croma, an evolution of the Station Wagon concept, which will be on the market in the Summer.
•generous interior roominess for outstanding comfort
•technological innovation in the field of diesel engines
•superior quality for a mass produced model
The Fiat Group has set numerous records in the field of diesel cars, starting with the Croma TDI which was the world's first direct injection diesel car back in 1986.
The new Croma is offered with 5 different gearboxes to exploit the performance of its engines in full; all the engines meet EU Stage 4 emissions standards, and the diesel units are fitted with particulate filters. All the petrol engines are combined with 5-speed transmissions, with the option of the sequential automatic transmission on the 2.2 16v, and all the diesel engines have 6-speed gearboxes (the sequential automatic unit is offered as an alternative on the 150 bhp 1.9 Multijet, and as the standard unit on the powerful 200 bhp 2.4 Multijet 20v).
The Fiat Croma is made all the more enjoyable by the optional large opening sunroof (approximately 1.5 m2); this sunroof covers up almost the entire area of the roof and comprises two glass panels: a fixed rear panel and an electrically opening front panel. Inside there are two sunshades that slide independently towards the rear of the car.
The panoramic sunroof gives occupants a completely new relationship with the surrounding environment, enjoying the luminosity and the sense of freedom that this large glazed surface provides. When the driver wants more light inside, the system lets him keep the sunroof closed but the blind underneath open. If, on the other hand, he likes the feeling of driving "in the open", the front glazed panel and sunblind can be opened completely in just seven seconds, to produce a real "window onto the sky".
In line with the high active safety targets, the new Croma is equipped with highly effective, extremely modular braking systems.
First of all, the braking system incorporates the most sophisticated electronic and mechanical aids - ABS, EBD, ESP, HBA (with ESP) and a Hill-holder (with ESP) - and it is of the power-assisted hydraulic type, with 2 independent cross-over circuits (each circuit controls one front wheel and the diagonally opposite rear wheel) to guarantee braking and stability even if one circuit should fail.
The entire range is equipped with discs all round, ventilated at the front (and at the rear on the Multijet 1.9 16v and 2.4 20v versions). Because of the different weights and power deliveries of the various engines, the braking systems also vary.
The outstanding level of safety on the Croma is guaranteed by structural measures designed to ensure that the passenger compartment cell will not deform in a crash, by a standard outfit of 7 airbags and by active safety devices that include ABS and ESP.
In this context, the Fiat Auto engineers have analysed all possible types of accident (head-on and side-on impact, overturning, nose-to-tail and fire), taking into account the different speeds at which a crash may occur, the different types of obstacle and the protection of occupants with very different physical characteristics. Some facts and figures that underline the enormous commitment that the company put into making the new Croma one of the safest cars in its segment: 18,000 hours of calculation, 120 crash tests, 100 crash simulations on a HyGe sled, 200 tests on components and subsystems, 10 new types of performance specifications and test procedures, 8 co-design suppliers with specific structures for passive safety (2 of whom were involved exclusively in the design and development of the safety devices).
The tests performed developed a crumple-zone cell to protect passengers in a head-on impact: the front structure is made up of 3 longitudinal load lines comprising front struts of high yield material, a mechanical frame in the lower part and 2 further small beams level with the wing that deform to block the stress from the upper part of the vehicle.
The magnesium crossbeam positioned between the two front pillars under the facia, guarantees a strong link between the pillars and with the floor, which it is connected by two steel reinforcements. This architecture contributes significantly to preventing deformation in the whole front part of the passenger compartment during both head-on and lateral impact. It also acts as a support structure for the steering column, and minimises the tendency of the steering wheel to retract and rear up in all types of frontal impact.
Structural changes were introduced to the following to protect occupants in a side impact:
• the central pillar, made of sheet metal with a very high structural resistance and filled with structural foam in the area of greatest flexion. This means that the pillar transfers most of the impact force to the sill and the roof frame;
• the floor, adding 2 seat crossbeams that unload some of the impact force on the opposite side of the car;
• the roof, inserting a transverse strut near the 2 central pillars;
• the doors, inserting a boxed crossbeam in the waist area and longitudinal bars made of material with a very high structural resistance. For rear impact, particularly at low speed, the presence of a "crash box" crossbeam that is screwed in place guarantees limited damage and easy repairs. What is more, to ensure that the fuel supply system is not damaged, the structure was successfully subjected to the test envisaged by the strict Japanese legislation. The structural efficiency of the bodyshell was obtained in part thanks to the use of special steel for over 40% of the weight.
Where restraint systems are concerned, the Croma offers:
• 2 dual stage front airbags (standard); when impact is of medium intensity, the electronic control unit only activates the first stage of the airbags, preventing the influx of energy that is not necessary to protect the occupant. But with very strong impact, the control unit activates both stages to absorb the occupant's high kinetic energy before he or she hits the steering wheel or the facia;
• front seat-belts with pre-tensioners and load limiters;
• decentralised supplementary sensors in the engine bay to detect head-on impact. These deceleration sensors (ECS - Early Crash Sensor) are positioned on the ends of the headlight crossbeam, near the light clusters, and they help the main electronic control unit to speed up airbag activation compared to a conventional system, particularly in the event of offset impact;
• driver's side knee airbag (standard): the area under the steering column has always been the most dangerous for the knees, but it is rendered innocuous both by the use of the knee-bag and by an electric steering lock, which has allowed the ignition key to be moved from its usual position on the side of the steering column to a characteristic position on the central tunnel console. Polypropylene foam energy absorbers have also been adopted to protect the steering column and the adjacent fusebox;
• a "passive" anti-whiplash device on the front head restraints, made up of a "rocker arm" mechanism, that acts between the upper part of the squab and the head restraint itself. In the event of a rear impact this exploits the thrust of the occupant's back on the seat squab to move the head restraint forward, this further reducing the horizontal distance between the head restraint and the passenger's neck compared to the static condition defined by the styling;
• front seat-belt sensors (Seat-belt reminder);
• manual switch to disengage the passenger airbag;
• front side airbags (standard); they are of the chest type and together with the door panels they protect critical parts of the body such as the ribs and abdomen. Installing them in the seats is a guarantee of greater efficiency at all times;
• curtain-bags (standard): they are activated together with the sidebags, and they inflate between the occupant and the side of the car, preventing the head from coming into contact with highly intrusive objects. Because they inflate from the front pillar towards the luggage compartment, curtain-bags protect both front and rear passengers;
• rear side airbags (optional): the sidebags are of the chest type and together with the door panels they protect critical parts of the body such as the ribs and abdomen. Installing them on the sides of the seat squabs always guarantees maximum protection at all times.
The new Fiat Croma is fitted with the most sophisticated electronic and mechanical active safety systems:
• ABS: anti-wheel lock system.
• EBD: electronic brake effort distribution.
• ESP: active control of the longitudinal and transverse dynamics of the vehicle.
On versions powered by the 147, 150 and 200 bhp engines, ESP is standard equipment and includes the following supplementary systems:
• ASR: limits drive wheel slip when accelerating, to prevent power oversteer or understeer and improve acceleration when surface grip is poor.
• MSR: prevents engine lock when decelerating, opens and closes the throttle valve, gradually adapting the braking effort of the engine to the situation at a given moment.
• HBA: electronic hydraulic braking assistant, which automatically increases the pressure of the braking circuit during panic braking.
• Hill-holder: an automatic device to release the brakes after a hill stop.
It's the best big Fiat for many years....test drive 4car
The Fiat Panda was a car produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat between 1980 and 2003. [Many people consider the Panda the first city car.
Designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro, the Panda was intended as a modern day interpretation of the Citroen 2CV, being a basic, simple, no frills utility vehicle that was easy to use and maintain. Introduced in 1980, the Panda was noted for its box-like styling, which would be developed two years later in the design of the supermini Uno. Mechanically, it borrowed heavily from the Fiat parts bin, using engines and transmissions from the Fiat 127 and in certain territories, the air-cooled 652cc 2-cylinder powerplant from the Fiat 126 was also used.
There were many features which contributed to the Panda's "utility car" role, for example the rear seat could be folded flat to make a bed, or folded up to act as a bottle carrier, or removed altogether to increase the load space. The front seats had removable covers so that they could be washed, the fabric covered dashboard could also be removed, and the Panda could be specified with a full-length roll back canvas roof. In 1983, a four-wheel drive system was developed, and this proved popular in rural Italy, where roads are often very poor. 1986 saw some major mechanical changes to the Panda, centering around the introduction of the FIRE engines from the Uno, and a new coil sprung rear axle to address the Panda's ride quality.
The 4x4 Panda Patent
Italdesign's milestones in automotive industry
Starting from the innovative Panda project, it is worthwhile to look into the research results which lead Aldo Mantovani and the Italdesign Engineering Division to think up and patent the 4x4 version of the Panda.
Given the ample engine space and ground set-up of the Panda, the designers and the planners saw the possibility of producing 4x4 model and a multiuse “Strip” model (an off-road, free-time, beach and picnic vehicle) for the market segment aimed at young people.
The 4x4 project started up without a specific request coming from FIAT.
Italdesign actually produced three functioning prototypes and tested them on mixed terrain.
The research was so successful that FIAT decided to develop the 4x4 program that was industrialized in cooperation with the Austrian company Styer-Puch; the first models were manufactured in 1983.
The SEAT twin
SEAT Marbella :drive: :D
Spanish automaker SEAT also produced a version of the Panda. Up to 1983, SEAT lacked their own designs and only made rebadged versions of Fiat cars, through a licence agreement between the two firms. Thus, there exists a Spanish version of the Panda called the SEAT Panda, produced from 1981 to 1986. After Fiat sold their share in SEAT in 1983 and the licence agreement was over, the whole SEAT Fiat-clone model range was quickly given the least possible changes so that Fiat couldn't sue SEAT on the basis of patent infringement. The SEAT Panda had its front and rear lights and panel shapes redesigned and was marketed as a SEAT Marbella from 1986 to 1998.[/
Mirafiori 131 Abarth
The replacement for the 124, the 131 was introduced in October 1974 in two, four & five (estate called 'Familiare') door versions. In the US the 131 was sold as the 'Brava'. These first series cars had the 1297cc and 1585cc ohv engines from the 124, with 65 and 75bhp respectively, mounted longitudinally with a conventional rear wheel drive layout. In 1976 the 131 Abarth was released, a modified two door car, with a 1995cc 16V dohc engine with 140bhp. Around 400 were built for homologation purposes.
A major revision of the range in 1978 brought 1301cc (78bhp) and 1585cc (96bhp) dohc engines - in the so called 'Super Mirafiori', whilst the older sohc engines soldiered on in the 'Mirafiori' (the 1297cc becoming 1301cc). Many changes included the bumpers, grille, lights (front and rear), wheels, interior trim and several other items. The Super Mirafiori was only available with four doors.
The estate was renamed 'Panorama' and two diesel engines (1995cc with 60bhp and 2445cc with 72bhp) were also made available in both saloon and estate bodyshells. The diesels were easily recognised by the large 'lump' in the bonnet, necessary to clear the new engines, and by the pair of two round headlights.
Also from 1978 the two door 131 Racing (Mirafiori Sport in the UK) was built to capitalize on the rallying successes of the 131. This had the 1995cc engine from the 132 with 115bhp and a new front end with four round headlights and different grille. Various minor mechanical changes were also made.
The third series was introduced in 1981 and featured revised trim both externally and internally. The Mirafiori received sohc engines 1367cc with 70bhp and 1585cc with 85bhp) whilst the Super Mirafiori continued with the same powerplants (the Racing was discontinued and the 1995cc unit went into a Supermirafiori). Other mechanical changes included the clutch, gearbox, suspension, brake servo and engine mounts. In the same year there appeared another variant, the 2000 Supermirafiori Volumetrico Abarth. This had a 2 litre supercharged engine with 140bhp and modified brakes, suspension, transmission etc.
The 131 was also heavily modified by Abarth and used in the World Rally Championship, a competition which it won in 1977, 1978 and 1980. This model featured a 16V cylinder head, independent rear suspension (as on the 124 Abarth Spider) and numerous other changes for competition use.
The following models were produced in each series
Series 1 : from 1974 :
Mirafiori 1297cc (65bhp) & 1585cc (75bhp)(both sohc)
Familiare 1297cc & 1585cc
Abarth 1995cc (140bhp) (dohc)
Series 2 : from 1978 :
Mirafiori 1301cc (65bhp)(sohc)
Supermirafiori 1301cc (78bhp) & 1585cc (96bhp) (both dohc)
Panorama 1301cc & 1585cc
Diesel 1995cc (60bhp) & 2445cc (72bhp)
Racing 1995cc (115bhp) (dohc) (known in the UK as Mirafiori Sport)
Series 3 : from 1981 :
Mirafiori 1367cc (70bhp) & 1585cc (85bhp) (both sohc)
Supermirafiori 1367cc (75bhp), 1585cc (97bhp) & 1995cc (113bhp) (all dohc)
Diesel 1995cc & 2445cc
Panorama 1301cc & 1995cc (petrol), 1995cc & 2445cc (diesel)
Volumetrico Abarth 1995cc (supercharged) (140bhp)
Total production (in Italy) of the 131 was 1,513,800.
Driveline longitudinal engine at front with rear wheel drive
Suspension Front : MacPherson strut with telescopic dampers and coil springs plus anti-roll bar
Rear : live axle with telescopic dampers within coil springs, four forward links and Panhard rod
Wheelbase : 2490mm
Front track : MkI :1372mm; MkII & estate 1376mm (Abarth 1460mm)
Rear track : MkI : 1315mm; MkII & estate 1319mm (Abarth 1456mm)
Brakes front : discs, diameter 227mm
rear : drums, diameter 228mm
handbrake operating on the rear via a cable
Gearbox 4 and 5 speed manual, 3 speed automatic
cable operated clutch
Steering Rack and pinion 3.4 turns lock to lock
Kerb weight 2 door : 965-975kg
4 door : 985-995kg
Supermirafiori 1300/1600 : 1145kg; 2000 : 1175kg; 2500D : 1275kg
Fiat 131 engine details
1300 ohv--------/----76----/---71.5-------/---1297.9-----/--- ?
1300 dohc----/------76-- /---71.5-------/---1297--------/[email protected]
1400 dohc----/------78--/---71.5-------/----1367-------/[email protected]
1600 dohc----/------84---/---71.5----/---1585----------/[email protected]
1800 dohc(US)/--84----/---79.2---/----1756---------- /[email protected]
2000 dohc /-----84-- /----90---- /----1995----------/[email protected]
Looks like an Italian Nissan 350Z to me :p
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